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What is interview? Different types of interviews

What is the interview?

"It is a dialogue that is established between two people in which one of them proposes a series of questions to the other from a previous script. It is done in order that the public can know the information about the person, his experience or knowledge."

The interview can be of a private nature or with an audience that is able to listen to the questions and answers that are outlined. 

There are different types of interviews depending on the context of the talk. Thus, for example, reference can be made to journalistic, job, medical, etc. interviews. 

In the process of interviewing someone, a unilateral informative relationship is established., while the other party only limits itself to asking the most pertinent questions to obtain answers that add value to an audience or are of importance for the evaluation of a given situation.

In the case of the job interview, the intention is to know the job skills of the person interviewed, skills that will somehow have to do with the position you want to fill. 

This usually has as a prerequisite a certain survey of the work career of the interviewee, to the extent that the interviewer will have the curriculum or resume. 

For the interviewer, this is usually an opportunity to also know the character and interaction that can be achieved with the candidate at a more personal level.

For the candidate, in turn, it means an opportunity in terms of showing qualities that go beyond the specificity of the profession, but that is still important at the time.

Different types of interviews

The interview has different fields of application and that is why there are different types of interviews depending on what it is used for: a job interview, clinical interview, cognitive interview, journalistic interview, etc.

On the other hand, the classifications that are used are varied: according to the content, the participants, the procedure ... Below you can see an explained list about the different types of interviews.

According to the number of participants

There are many ways to distinguish the different types of interviews from each other, and taking as a reference the number of participants is one of these criteria.
  1. Individual interview
  2. Group interview
  3. Panel interview

Individual interview: The individual interview is the most used and is also called a personal interview. 

When a person looks for a job and meets the interviewer face to face, when a psychologist receives his patient to know first hand the reason for his behavior or when a personal trainer receives his client to find out his motivation for training sports, the individual interview is used

Group interview: The group interview is usually used in the workplace, as it allows valuing different competencies of the applicants for the job. 

Different interviewees and an interviewer participate in this type of interview (although sometimes they can receive help from another member of the company). 

In addition to the information that the individual can provide verbally, the group interview allows observing the interaction between the different candidates, thus providing relevant information for their hiring.

In the clinic, this type of interview is called a family interview. However, in this area, it is distinguished by having objectives set in the relationships between the people involved (as a form of psychological intervention), while in other contexts of psychology this objective does not have to occur. 

In fact, it is sometimes used simply as a way to save time and resources, almost as if they were individual interviews that take place at the same time and place.

Panel interview: The panel interview is also a group interview used in the workplace. On this occasion, and unlike the type of interview mentioned above, there are several interviewers who interview a candidate.

Each interviewer will evaluate the candidate according to their own criteria and, once the interview is over, criteria will be unified and a common decision will be made on whether the interviewee is an ideal candidate for the position.

Of course, one of the main advantages of this type of interview is that it is possible to contrast different points of view in a single session, so you have a more weighted view of the candidates. 

For example, it is possible that both the Human Resources technician and one or more department heads participate in the interview, those whose work processes depend on the vacancy that will be filled.

This allows us to have points of view of people specialized in the different aspects of the work that must be taken into account: soft skills and aspects of the personality according to the organizational psychologist, technical knowledge according to the department head, etc.

According to the procedure

Beyond the number of participants, we can also categorize the types of interviews according to their format, that is, the way in which the interviewer communicates with the interviewee and asks him one type of question or another.

Structured interview: This type of interview, the structured interview, follows a series of fixed questions that have been previously prepared and the same questions apply to all respondents. 

This type of interview emphasizes the need to create a context as similar as possible between the different interviews conducted, in order to better compare the results obtained without non-relevant variables contaminating the conclusions.

In the case of job interviews, scoring systems are often used to evaluate candidates. This greatly facilitates the unification of criteria and the assessment of the interviewee.

Unstructured Interview: The unstructured interview is also called a free interview. It works with open questions, without a pre-established order, acquiring the characteristics of conversation and allowing spontaneity. 

That makes this one of the types of interviews that most closely resemble an informal conversation, although it does not cease to have a clear method and objectives.

Mixed interview: The mixed interview is a mixture of the two. Therefore, the interviewer alternates structured questions and spontaneous questions. 

This type of interview is more complete than the structured and unstructured, since, having the benefits of both, it allows comparison between the different candidates and also allows to deepen the specific characteristics of these.

Depending on the mode of channel

We can also classify the types of interviews according to the type of channel in which communication between interviewer and interviewee is established.

Face to face interview: The face-to-face interview is the face-to-face interview. Both actors in the interview face each other. This causes nonverbal communication to be taken into account.

Telephone interview: The telephone interview is used in the selection of personnel, as it is used as a filter in the recruitment process if there is a high volume of candidates. 

Through this, an expert in personnel selection can rule out a candidate if he considers that he is not fit for the position since it is usually assessed if he meets the requirements of the job offered. It also allows to know your concerns and if your degree of motivation.

Online interview: Although it is increasingly used in clinical or educational settings, online interviews are characteristic of personnel selection processes when there are many candidates for a job offer. It is common in large companies and is often used when the candidate is not in the same location.

Currently, there are programs that conduct interviews in which a candidate is recorded from home after asking a series of questions. 

There is no interviewer, but the questions appear in text format and, subsequently, the candidate's response is recorded. The answer is stored and sent to the selection staff that is responsible for carrying out the assessment.

By email: This type of interview is common in the journalistic field. In the email interviews, a series of questions are sent by email and the respondent returns them with their response. In this way, in addition to those psychological variables to be taken into account, the specific skills that will be used in the workplace are checked.

However, it is also true that this type of interview can simply be a cheap version of the selection process, in those contexts in which it is decided not to devote practically any means or time to this phase.

Other types of interview

The interview classes we have seen so far can be characterized relatively easily. But there is another category of interviews whose peculiarities reside in somewhat more complex aspects. We explain them below.

Competition Interview: This type of competency interview is also known as a behavioral interview and is used by Human Resources experts to get to know if the person interviewed is the right person for the position to which they aspire. 

The recruiter focuses on obtaining behavioral examples of the applicant's personal, academic and professional life, after previously knowing the needs of both the position and the company.

This means that this type of interview has a component that brings it closer to the tests of competencies and skills, although it is not usually considered as an exam for which it is necessary to prepare specifically.

The behavioral interview was born as a result of the concept of competition, very popular in the business and organizational field.

Thanks to the competency interview, it is possible to assess whether the motivation, knowledge, abilities or values ​​of the interviewee fit the needs of the company.

There is a great previous work in this type of interview because first of all, it is necessary to define the skills that the position and the company require.

Currently, a type of competency interview called a critical incident interview has been extended, which is based on a series of open questions that expect the person to be interviewed to describe in more detail what he said, though, felt and did in certain occasions, because in this way it is possible to know if the candidate has the required competencies.

Tension provocation interview: The stress provocation interview is used in job interviews, especially for managers. 

The objective is to create stress or stressful situations to assess the candidate's ability to solve problems, in addition to knowing their degree of tolerance for frustration or their ability to manage stress.

However, it should be borne in mind that the type of situations that produce stress are very different: perhaps, the tension caused by the job to be performed is well managed by the candidate, but the stressful situation applied to the interview, being novel, it is not.

Motivational interview: The motivational interview is a style of directive interaction, focused on the client and aimed at helping people and encouraging them to compare the advantages and disadvantages of certain situations, in order to cause positive changes in their behavior.

What is interview? Different types of interviews What is interview? Different types of interviews Reviewed by communication etiquette on 8:57 PM Rating: 5

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